A systematic approach to efficient surveys of scholarly sources


Literature review is the survey of published literature on a specific topic. It provides an overview of the current scholarship in the domain and, as such, is the starting point of any research project. The goal of literature review is to answer the following questions:

  • What have others done in the domain?

Field Map

Field mapping is a method that allows for systematic survey of a research area in order to arrange the information for easy retrieval in future. It involves the identification of:

  • Specific terminology used by…

Under the Hood

A brief look inside the most popular operating system in history

Android Operating System
Android Operating System
Source: https://pixabay.com/users/mohamed_hassan-5229782/

Android is an open-source mobile operating system built on top of a modified version of the Linux kernel. It was developed by the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology industry giants led by Google. It is licensed under the Apache License and its source code is released as part of the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Launched in 2007, Android soon become the best-selling operating system in history because of its open development model and user-friendly interface. Its latest version, Android 11, was released in 2020.


The Android project was founded in 2003 with the goal of developing smart mobile devices. It began with the development of an operating system for digital cameras but the focus soon shifted to mobile phones for their larger market size. The project was acquired by Google in 2005 where the Linux kernel was chosen as the basis for this operating system because of its flexibility and upgradability. …


Atif Khurshid

Computer Scientist

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